Normal growth of a child at 4 years old: formula and measurement rules

Social-emotional development of children at 2 years old

Emotional, active, active state. Well disposed when performing independent, skillful actions, with a positive assessment of an adult. Stubborn, demanding what is not allowed, insisting on his own. Dissatisfied, refuses action if an attempt fails.

Screaming, gesticulating, capricious:

  • if you are unwilling to comply with an adult’s request,
  • imitating a loved one, another child,
  • to attract attention.

Disobedient, gets angry when movements are restricted, in response to the rude tone of an adult. Refuses to communicate (hides) with an unfamiliar adult. Cries for a long time when mom leaves, when scared, when offended. Smiles, gestures, looks into the eyes to keep the attention of an adult or another child, expects praise. Shows vivid emotions when communicating with loved ones (facial expressions, exclamations, movements). Smiles, uses emotionally charged speech when playing together with children. Gets pleasure from independently pronounced syllables and words. Emotionally interested in music, singing, small folklore forms, outdoor games, attitude differentiated to them (active movements, looseness, fascination, inhibition)

Shows vivid emotions when communicating with loved ones (facial expressions, exclamations, movements). Smiles, uses emotionally charged speech when playing together with children. Gets pleasure from independently pronounced syllables and words. Emotionally interested in music, singing, small folklore forms, outdoor games, attitude differentiated to them (active movements, looseness, fascination, inhibition).

Emotionally anticipates results:

  • own action,
  • actions of an adult.

Empathizes, sympathizes with a crying child, an elderly person, treats animals and plants with care:

  • following the example of an adult,
  • on one's own initiative (rarely).

Emotionally restrained, able to wait a little (after an adult’s explanation). He is calm about the instructions: “Get the toys”, “this is possible”, “this is not possible”. Understands the words: “good”, “bad”.

Child's head and chest circumference at two and three years old

The next physiological indicators of the child that are worth paying attention to are chest and head circumference. These anthropometric indicators are measured during a routine visit to the pediatrician.

In newborns, the head grows faster, so at first it exceeds the size of the chest by several centimeters. Then the growth rate of the head decreases, the chest grows more intensively, and by 4 months the sizes of the chest and head are equalized. By the age of one year, the chest circumference already exceeds the head circumference. In the future, a healthy child's head will always be smaller than the chest.

It is very important to measure correctly. To measure your head, hold the measuring tape 1 cm above the brow bone.

It should pass over the ears and touch the mound at the back of the head. To measure your chest, place the tape at nipple level. From behind it should pass along the lower scapular angles. The tape should fit against the child’s body, but not squeeze.

Interesting Facts

The average height of a man in Russia at the moment is about one hundred and seventy-eight centimeters.

At the same time, according to various sources, over the last century the average height in our country has increased by ten centimeters.

The impact was made by changes in diet, ecology, lifestyle - all these factors strictly influence the production of growth hormone.

In children, the level of growth hormone is always several times higher than in adults. Adults simply do not need it in such quantities, since the body has already reached its maximum length.

But just during childhood and adolescence, as well as up to 21, and in some cases up to 25 years, you can influence a person’s growth by regulating the amount of this hormone.

Artificial administration of growth hormone can even help in some cases of dwarfism, but only when the patient has not yet reached a certain age. Otherwise, such intervention in the body will not bring a positive result.

The average height of a man in Russia currently exceeds the average height of a woman. A similar trend is observed in other countries around the world, regardless of region.

Average height in Russia is high compared to Asian countries, but lower than in some individual states.

For example, residents of the Netherlands are taller. In the Asian region, indicators also vary, for example, in North Korea the average growth is lower than in South Korea, and in Japan this figure is even higher.

In Africa, growth also varies depending on the region, for example, in the Northern part it is higher than in the Central part.

Norms of weight and height of babies up to one year

A table of height and weight for children under 12 months is used more often, since in infancy it is most important to track growth in indicators. The norm for boys is:

MonthHeight (cm)Weight, kg)
152-573500 – 5000
255-604500 – 6000
359-645500 – 6900
461-666100 – 7700
565-697000 – 8400
666-707900 – 8950
767-728000 – 1050
869-738200 – 10400
970-768700 – 11050
1071-779200 – 11500
1172-779300 – 11500
1273-799400 – 11900

For girls, these standards will look like this:

MonthHeight (cm)Weight, kg)
151-563500 – 4600
255-594300 – 5500
358-625300 – 6400
460-655800 – 7100
562-676200 – 8000
664-697000 – 8800
765-707200 – 9100
868-727200 – 9400
968-738100 – 10000
1069-758200 – 10800
1171-768900 – 11000
1272-779000 – 11300

Height and weight gain may slow down one month and speed up the next. The indicators depend on the baby’s maturity, type of feeding, and overall health. The influence is exerted by the lifestyle of the parents and the activity of the newborn

It is important to remember that the numbers are averaged and are assessed by the pediatrician only as part of the child’s general history

What is the danger of weight deviations from the norm?

Of course, if the weight of a three-year-old baby is close to the average, then there is no need to worry too much. The “below average” and “above average” indicators do not cause much concern either. In this case, most often the deviations are associated with individual characteristics and genetic predisposition. But low and high indicators are already serious. In such a situation, parents should definitely seek advice from a pediatrician. Excess weight or lack thereof may indicate a malfunction of any body function.

It’s worth starting with the fact that excess weight is, first of all, an additional load on the cardiovascular system and skeletal bones, primarily on the spine. Obese children may experience high blood pressure as early as three years of age. Often, the rapid accumulation of kilograms is facilitated by improper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, excess weight can be a harbinger of such a serious disease as diabetes. Being overweight is not good for the nervous system either. Lagging behind other children during outdoor games can ultimately become the first step towards the development of numerous complexes.

Parents whose babies weigh too little should not relax. It would seem, what problems could there be? But they exist. Often, too slow weight gain indicates slow development of the baby, primarily delayed growth, and sometimes mental development. In addition, a lack of mass contributes to weakened immunity, the development of anemia and bone loss. In many cases, underweight children cannot cope with physical activity and get tired quickly. Depletion of the nervous system is also observed in such children. But the most unpleasant thing is that being underweight at this age can have serious problems in the future. As doctors have found out, this deviation can lead to the development of infertility. And both girls and boys.

Physical development: height, weight, motor skills

The physical development parameters of a 3-year-old child vary within the following framework:

  • weight – from 12.5 to 15 kg;
  • height – from 91 to 100 cm.

First of all, remember that neither at 3 years old nor at any other age does a child owe anything to anyone! All children are completely different, and the development of the baby is strictly individual. But there are certain guidelines that help parents in raising and developing a child.

A 3 year old child must have:

  • everyday skills - eating independently with a fork and spoon, dressing, undressing, washing hands before eating, washing, brushing teeth, knowing where his clothes are;
  • motor skills - climbing and dismounting stairs, sliding down a slide, being able to kick a ball, jumping, running, riding a scooter, balance bike or tricycle.

The development of 3-year-old children should be comprehensive, since during this period children are most susceptible to everything new and unknown. When working with children, you cannot focus on anything specific. Classes should be conducted in the form of a game so that the little fidget does not get bored. It is through playing that children learn about the norms of behavior in society.

Fresh air, daily long walks in the park and forest area, a sufficient amount of ultraviolet rays contribute to the methodical development of your child. While walking together, play outdoor games, which are very important for strengthening the muscles and increasing the growth of the child’s bones. During games, do not forget to monitor your child's posture. Movement in the fresh air and water procedures, which children love so much, increase metabolism in the body and develop the baby’s respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

It is important to remember: at the age of 3 years, a child should not be obedient, diligent, neat, patient, be able to write numbers and letters, or overcome difficulties.

Don't overestimate your child and don't put things too difficult on him.

Photo source:

How to take height measurements correctly?

Measuring a child's body length

In order to measure the baby’s body length as accurately as possible, you need to take into account the following points when he stands at the measuring scale:

  • Socks and shoes must be removed. And although socks do not greatly affect the baby's height, they can hide his attempts to appear taller by standing on tiptoes than he really is. Excess hair decorations must also be removed.
  • The baby should stand on the base of the height measurement unit with his back to the vertical tripod. At the same time, his shoulders should be strictly at the same level, and his arms should be extended at the seams. In turn, the heels, buttocks, shoulder blades, and back of the head should touch the vertical tripod. The child's legs should be straight, and the heels should be pressed firmly to the base.
  • The baby's head must be placed so that the auditory canal and the lower edge of the eye socket are on the same horizontal line and parallel to the base of the device. In order to fix the baby's head in this position, the area where the index finger and thumb connect should be lightly pressed above his chin. Fixing the head in this position, with the other hand you need to lower the bar so that it completely touches the top of the head and presses the child’s hair.
  • When you are convinced that the baby is standing correctly at the measuring scale, you need to ask him to take a deep breath and then exhale. The readings are taken as you exhale.
  • The height of a 4-year-old child must be read exactly to the nearest millimeter; numbers are not rounded.


At the age of 4, a child can be enrolled in some sports sections. Attending sports classes will not only provide an opportunity to expend energy, but will also help you learn new skills and understand what discipline is. Praise your child often and give him enough attention. The baby has become more mature, but still needs his parents. From the age of 4, a child can be taken to the cinema, circus and similar places

To make your acquaintance with this type of pastime successful, do not immediately take tickets to the front row. Hearing hundreds of children's questions every day, it is important to remain a patient and wise parent. Don’t refuse to answer your little one, even if you don’t know what to say.

Find the answer together and satisfy children's curiosity. You can start teaching foreign languages ​​to a 4-5 year old child. Classes, of course, should be in the form of a game.

Normal indicators of basic sizes

When calculating such indicators as height, weight, leg size, head circumference, genetic factors must be taken into account. If the child's parents or relatives are short, then one should not expect the child to be large. The DNA formula is based primarily on the genes of mom and dad.

Average indicators for children at 3 years old:

  • a child’s weight at 3 years old is from 11 to 18 kg;
  • a child’s height at 3 years is from 90 to 97 cm;
  • head circumference – from 49 to 50 cm;
  • chest circumference – from 51 to 53 cm.

Height and weight of boys and girls

The indicator parameters are not the same depending on gender. Normal weight differs by 600-800 g in favor of the male gender. The difference is also noted with the growth rate.

Indicator table for girls:

AgeAverage weightHeight
3 years11.6-17.7 kg89-103.1 cm
3.5 years12.3-18.6 kg91.3-106 cm

Table of indicators for boys:

AgeAverage weightHeight
3 years12-17 kg88-104.5 cm
3.5 years12.7-18.8 kg90.3-107.5 cm

A child's weight at 4 years is from 13 to 20 kg, height is from 93 to 110.6 cm.

Head and chest circumference

This value is measured using a centimeter tape. Place the tape just above the line of the eyebrows, clasp the back of the head, and at the back the line passes through the most protruding part (the tubercle of the occipital bone). The chest is measured at the level of the nipples and from behind - along the bottom of the shoulder blades.

Table of head and chest volumes for girls:

Age, yearsHead volumeBust volume
347.6-52.7 cm49.6-53 cm
3,547.8-53.2 cm50-54 cm

For boys:

Age, yearsHead volumeBust volume
348-53 cm50-54 cm
3,548.6-54 cm50.5-55 cm

A small error of up to 2 cm is acceptable and does not indicate developmental abnormalities.


By the age of 3, all baby teeth have erupted. A trip to the dentist is mandatory to monitor the development of a healthy bite and timely correction of the tongue frenulum. It is necessary to exclude supernumerary teeth, see if all the teeth have erupted, and if not, find out the reason for this

You should pay attention to the spaces between the baby teeth, because... Permanent teeth are much wider and when they erupt they need enough space, a small distance is considered normal

The doctor also evaluates the child’s oral hygiene and talks about the benefits of brushing teeth.

A child at this age easily makes contact with a doctor, especially if you played “Hospital” at home. The doctor then evokes curiosity rather than fear. After going to the clinic, the parents’ task is to develop oral hygiene skills (together with the child, brush teeth 2 times a day, to be an example for him).

Foot size of boys and girls: table


AgeFoot sizeShoe size
3 years15 cm24
3.5 years15.5 cm25
3.9 years16 cm25,5


AgeFoot sizeShoe size
3 years16.5 cm26
3.5 years17 cm27
3.9 years17,528

Depending on your height, the figures may vary slightly.

Child's physical abilities

The child is already actively running, jumping, dancing, imitating an adult. Speaks about 1500 words. Connects small sentences. Brings meaning to the conversation. Can complete a task of 2-3 actions. He knows how old he is, what his name is, his last name. Distinguishes some of the most popular colors. Names animals and their young.

He is drawn to drawing and enjoys doing creative work with his parents: modeling, appliqué. Listens to fairy tales, reacts to familiar music, begins to memorize and recite poems, and retells stories in his own words.

By the age of 3, he begins to understand what kind of people are in front of him. He may close if he doesn’t like a person’s behavior and not make contact. At this age, insults and punishments are well remembered, so you should not be too strict. Obedient children are brought up in those families where they do not raise their voices and do not put them in a corner. This does not mean at all that you need to follow the child’s lead in everything, just try to transform anger into mercy, and then everything will work out.

They can tie shoelaces, fasten or unfasten a button, and close a zipper on their own or with a little help from their parents. They undress and dress themselves. They become more obedient and disciplined. This is a special age when parents, in the eyes of a child, seem to be models of human life. Looking at mom and dad, the child copies words and gestures, so be a good role model.

Clothes sizes for boys and girls: table


3 years96 cm27-28
3.9 years102 cm28-29


3 years98 cm28
3.9 years104 cm28-30

Tables of height and weight of a child at 3 years old

All parents are concerned about the question of what a child’s weight should be at 3 years old with normal development. Below are tables of norms for a child’s weight and height by the age of 3; it’s easy to navigate through them and figure out whether your child is underweight or overweight.

Data from domestic pediatricians on the physical development of a 3-year-old child

3 yearsBottom lineUpper limit
Boys' weight, kg13,017,4
Girls' weight, kg12,517,0
Boys' height, cm91,0102,0
Girls' height, cm91,0101,2
Boys' head circumference, cm48,752,3
Head circumference of girls, cm47,651,1
Boys chest circumference, cm50,055,0
Girls chest circumference, cm49,156,0

Data from the World Health Organization on the parameters of physical development of children at 3 years of age

3 yearsBottom lineUpper limit
Boys' weight, kg11,318,3
Girls' weight, kg10,818,1
Boys' height, cm88,7103,5
Girls' height, cm87,4102,7
Boys' head circumference, cm46,652,3
Head circumference of girls, cm45,751,3

Factors affecting child growth

Genetic factors:

set the limits of the baby's biological growth potential, and in addition the growth rate. They are quite closely intertwined with environmental factors that affect growth.

That is, if the baby’s parents are short, then the likelihood of the baby being short is also very high. However, under good external conditions - excellent nutrition, the absence of diseases that adversely affect growth, a good emotional and social background in the family, you can confidently count on a large growth of a 4-year-old child compared to his parents. In this regard, the following example is quite indicative: it was determined that the tribe of African pygmies has such a short stature only due to the lack of protein in their diet. When the tribe's children were switched to a protein-rich diet, they grew almost twice as tall as their parents.

It was also found that special physical exercises have an excellent effect on the baby, despite his poor genetics, which increase the growth rate of a 4-year-old child, stimulating the growth zones of the long tubular bones and the spine.

External environmental factors, which include:

Negative effects during the period of intrauterine formation or after childbirth, which disrupts the development and growth of the fetus. These effects can be of different nature - immunological, physical, chemical, or the result of infection.

Nutritional factors that affect growth (vitamins, microelements, salts, complete proteins) can be closely intertwined with economic and social factors.

Emotional and social factors that can change growth potential include the nature of the baby’s relationship with mom and dad, his position in the family, and the parents’ own interests and needs.

That is, in general we can say that the development and growth of a 4-year-old child is the result of the combined influence of a complex set of factors on him, both external environmental and genetic.

What you need to know

The average height of a man in Russia has become slightly higher over the past decades. The statistics are that body length is constantly increasing.

So, in the Middle Ages, people all over the earth were significantly lower than they are now. However, the last century has been marked by even greater growth rates.

At the same time, growth is not increasing evenly in all regions. It is impossible to say that, for example, throughout the entire earth, on different continents, in different countries and among different peoples, height has increased by exactly ten cm.

No, some nationalities are more susceptible to this factor, others less so. For example, Asia statistically cannot boast of the same increase in growth as Europe, but, nevertheless, some growth in this parameter is observed.

Russia is actually located in both Europe and Asia. This location significantly influenced the culture of the state and its characteristics.

But it is worth noting that the titular population of the country, Russians, are genetically Europeans and there is minimal Asian influence in them, no more than in European countries.

If we look at statistics, we can determine that the average height of a person in Russia has increased approximately the same as in Europe.

This factor indicates that height is more of a genetic feature, but in this case the question remains: why did the rate of its increase differ among different peoples at different periods of time?

What other factors influence this parameter? Scientists suggest that the following factors have the greatest impact:

NutritionChanging the content of the diet and increasing certain substances in it significantly affect human growth. This fact has changed significantly in the last hundred years
Lifestyle changeMany conclude that a reduction in heavy physical labor, as well as a more sedentary lifestyle, played a role in the increase in average height
EcologyThis factor should also not be discounted.

To understand exactly what affects human growth, it is worth turning to biology and medicine. Thus, the body grows under the influence of growth hormone.

When there is a lot of it, a person grows more, when there is little of it, less, that is, a direct pattern is observed.

Most likely, since the average height of a man in Russia has increased, especially over the last hundred years, there has been an increase in the production of this hormone under the influence of various factors - nutrition, ecology, and so on.

Height and weight chart for girls from 1 to 10 years old

The growth of children begins to slow down as soon as the kids turn one, so for children from one to three years old, the norms are no longer determined monthly, but every three months. For children from 3 to 7 years old - once every six months, and for children aged from seven to ten years - the norms change once a year.

By one year and three months, a girl should normally grow to 77.5 cm and weigh 9,600 grams. The lower limits of the norm: 74.83 (height in centimeters) and 8,500 (weight in grams), the upper limits: 80.3 // 10,900.

The next reference point is defined for the age of one year and six months. Norm: 80.65//10.200. Lower limit: 77.7//9.100. Upper: 83.5//11.600.

At one year and nine months, the norms for girls are 83.65//10.900. Lower limit of normal: 80.6//9.600. Upper limit: 86.7//12.300.

By the age of two, girls normally grow to 86.4 cm and weigh 11,500 grams. The lower limit of the norm: 83.2//10.200. Upper limit: 89.6//13.000.

Average height and weight for babies aged 2 years 3 months: 88.3/12.100. Lower limit: 84.8//10.700. Upper limit: 91.7//13.700.

Girls at 2.5 years old should grow to 90.7 cm and weigh 12,700 grams. The lower limit of the norm: 86.9//11.200. Upper frames: 94.3 // weight 14.400.

At 2.9 years, the average values ​​are: 92.9 // 13.300. Lower limits: 89.3//11.700, upper limits: 96.6//weight 15.100.

Three-year-olds should be 95 cm tall and weigh 13,900 grams. Data below 91.3//12.200 are assessed as low, and figures above 98.8//15.800 are assessed as high.

At 3.5 years old, the standards for a girl are: 99//15,000. The lower line is 95//13.100, and the upper line is 103.1//17.200.

Average height and weight for a four-year-old girl: 102.6//16.100. The lower limits of the norm: 98.4//14.000, and the upper limits of height and weight: 107.1//18.500.

At 4.5 years old, the standards for a girl are: 106.2//17.200. Lower limits: 101.6//14.900, and upper limits: 110.7//19.900.

Average height and weight for a five-year-old girl: 109.4//18.200. The lower limits of the norm: 104.7 // 15.800, and the upper ones: 114.2 // 21.200.

At 5.5 years old, girls should grow to 112.2 cm and weigh 19,000 grams. Parameters less than 107.2 // 16.600 are considered low, and indicators more than 117.1 // 22.200 are considered high.

Standards for six-year-olds: 115.1//20.200. Lower limits: 110//17.500. Upper – 120.2//23.500.

By the age of 6.5 years, girls grow to 118 cm and weigh 21,200 grams. The lower limits at 6.5 years are 112.7 // 18.300, and the upper limits are 123.3 // weight 24.900.

Average height and weight for seven-year-old girls: 120.8 and 23,000. Lower limits: 115.3//21.300, upper limits: 126.3//26.300.

In children over seven years of age, anthropometric indicators are monitored once a year. The standards for eight-year-old girls are 126.6//25,000. The lower limit for eight-year-olds will be 120.8 and 21.400. The upper limit is 132.4//30,000.

Norms for nine-year-olds: 132.45//28.200. Lower limits: 132.5 and 27.900, upper limits – 138.6 // weight 34.000.

A ten-year-old girl should have an average height of 138.55 cm and a weight of 31,900 g. Data below 132.2//27.100 are assessed as low, and figures above 145//38.200 are assessed as high.

Educational activities and games

Until the age of 5, children's games and activities were often arbitrary in nature and primarily developed certain skills. He continues to develop thanks to games, and the child himself can complicate them over time. As before, he plays those games that bring him pleasure, but now they should also be based on learning. The child begins to do what adults ask of him.

5 years old is already a preschooler. In a year or two he will find himself in an environment completely alien to him. From the age of 5 he is taught to understand what it means to be independent and responsible. And playing with other children allows him to learn to adapt to being surrounded by his peers.

Parents should not rush things, gradually introducing new elements into the child’s usual games, universally developing his physical and intellectual abilities.

A child of 5 years old is still very inattentive and can quickly switch his attention from one thing to another.

You shouldn’t demand that he complete tasks flawlessly, but it’s important to teach him independence - even if it turned out crookedly, it’s important that he did it himself. Having mastered a new skill, the child himself will want to develop it

Of course, he may eventually get tired of it, so it’s important to teach your child to finish what he starts.

Having mastered a new skill, the child himself will want to develop it

Of course, he may eventually get tired of it, so it’s important to teach your child to finish what he starts.

When choosing educational games, you should not resort to excessive formalization, use of certain models, or focus on mandatory success. Thanks to the skillful actions of parents, the child himself becomes a pioneer. Each baby has his own internal development plan and in no case should he be compared with other children. Otherwise, this may lead to loss of interest in further learning.

Role-playing games are good for developing creative thinking. The child imagines himself as a sailor, pilot or character from his favorite book, participates in stories he has heard about or makes up his own.

At this age, parents should devote time to teaching their child to read and write. Children love bright, colorful books. Choosing a book they like with an interesting plot, they ask to read it again and again. In this way, you can captivate your child by inviting him to learn to read it on his own. Daily activities will help your child master letters faster.

Starting from the age of 5, a child is already able to learn foreign languages. To do this, no more than 25-30 minutes a day of gaming activities is enough, along with learning to read and write.

At the age of 5, the child begins to recognize himself as “I”. It is at this age that a person’s first memories of himself belong. What a person becomes depends on what he became at five years old. During these years, the atmosphere in which the child grows up, the behavior of the parents that he observes, family traditions and morals are important - all this will become the basis for the emergence of a new personality.

Mental development: what happens at this age? Standard options

First, let's describe the skills that a three-year-old usually possesses:

  • Speech skills. By the age of 3, the child should be able to speak. But if this hasn’t happened to your baby yet, don’t panic. Just pay attention to this and consult your pediatrician.
  • A child of 3 years old understands speech addressed to him. Three-year-olds, having 500-1500 words in their active vocabulary, construct sentences and even short stories, and use metaphors and images in conversation.
  • He knows everything about himself: what is his name, how old is he, where does he live, the names of his parents.
  • Based on pictures or descriptions, he can guess an object, find similarities and differences.
  • Knows how to build cause-and-effect relationships and relies on them in his behavior. Some kids not only understand this, but also know how to explain it in words.
  • The ability to make acquaintances and friendships is strictly individual. It all depends on the character of the baby. Often girls at this age already play games together, while boys show interest in playing games together later.
  • There is a desire to help parents in their adult affairs. The main thing here is not to hinder your zeal and do household chores together. Believe me, with the right approach you will only enjoy the joint activities.
  • By this age, the baby plays role-playing games. Now, using the example of a teddy bear or doll, you can easily explain to him why it is so important to go to bed on time and brush your teeth well. He easily integrates into your game, thereby becoming an excellent partner in joint games.

How much should a boy and girl weigh at 4 years old?

Answering this question, let us again turn to the official source - international tables developed by WHO. Thus, the weight of a 4-year-old girl can range from 14.1 kg to 18.4 kg, with the average weight being 16.1 kg. The normal weight of a four-year-old boy should be from 14.5 kg to 18.5 kg, the average value is 16.3 kg.

The general average weight of a child at 4 years of age (normal) is from 14.1 kg to 18.5 kg. Don't panic if your baby is a little plumper or smaller than the average child. Remember, these numbers are only guidelines that help to identify incipient deviations in time. And don’t forget to draw an analogy with the physique of your family members.

Daily routine for a child from 2 to 3 years old

For the normal development of a child, it is important that parents try to follow a regime that would allow the baby to fully recover from physical and neuropsychic stress, because all body systems continue to develop at an accelerated pace and are under serious stress. Despite the fact that the child seems cheerful and energetic, by the early evening, and sometimes by the middle of the day, he may begin to experience overload, so it is important to wisely regulate the level and nature of his activity during the day

What kind of daily routine can a 2-3 year old child have? We will talk about this in detail in a separate article, but for now the most necessary information.

Dream. The need for sleep approaches 10 – 12 hours a day. Although children of this age generally need one nap of 1.5 to 2 hours during the day, some babies may begin to refuse it.

  • Feeding. Five meals a day with an interval of 2 - 3 hours (breakfast, second breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner).
  • Wakefulness. If the baby sleeps during the day, then his periods of wakefulness are 5–6 hours. Due to the imperfection of the nervous system, a child at this age can only concentrate on monotonous activities for a short time (20-30 minutes by 3 years), gets tired easily or, conversely, gets excited. It is wise to alternate different types of activity throughout the day.
  • Walks. Some of the child's waking hours should consist of walks in the fresh air. Even in winter, they are mandatory, but let their duration not exceed 1.5 hours: babies are still easily hypothermic. And in the summer, a child can spend all his waking hours in the fresh air, if he is not in the open sun during peak hours of solar activity.
  • Water procedures. This is not only about following the rules of hygiene, but also about hardening and strengthening the body, as well as relieving muscle tension: water has a calming effect, so you can continue to take a bath in the evening - it will set your baby up for a sound sleep.

Approximate daily routine for children aged 2 to 3 years:

  • Feeding: 8:00, 10:30, 13:00, 16:00, 19:00.
  • Wakefulness: 7:30 – 13:30, 15:30 – 20:30.
  • Sleep: 13:30 – 15:30, 20:30 – 7:30.
  • Walk: 2 times a day after breakfast and afternoon snack.

Children's development over time

Based on research conducted by the World Health Organization between 1997 and 2003, a specific table was compiled that clearly shows the ratio of height and weight at a certain age for both boys and girls.

Nowadays, when the market is often filled with fakes and low-quality goods in all areas and, in particular, among food products, people are increasingly beginning to appreciate quality goods, and especially food. After all, their physical health is linked to nutrition. Another conversation is that the majority of people in our country simply cannot afford really good products. And because for them the question arises not about life, but about survival, this very majority is forced to purchase cheap goods and low-quality products.

In the modern world, the trend of feeding infants with mother's milk has become widespread.

It must be said that earlier in the penultimate decades of the last century, understanding of the importance of breastfeeding infants faded a little into the shadows. Perhaps because people used to treat everything more simply, and there was more of the present around them than now

But be that as it may, the height and weight of children of those distant years differ significantly from those of today. After all, a lot of water has passed under the bridge since then. Literally everything has changed, from the level and rhythm of life, nutrition and ending with the environmental situation. Of course, all these factors have a direct impact on the development of the child and the degree of his health.

If in the last century children led a very active lifestyle, spent a lot of time in the fresh air, played sports and outdoor games, then, looking at the generation of today's children, we can observe a deplorable picture of their dependence on modern computer technologies. And what does this lead them to, if not to intellectual and physical degradation at the same time? It is in our age of information technology that the problem of overweight children of preschool and primary school age has become acute. And, if we add to this permissiveness and moral laxity, then it’s truly time to grab your head with your hands!

Well, we deviated somewhat from the set course. Although everything listed earlier also applies to the development of the modern generation of our offspring. If we think sensibly, it turns out that instead of developing children, innovative technologies only destroy their psyche and inhibit their mental maturation. Why should children learn something, think and try to improve their literacy when any academic work can be done instead by a computer or, in extreme cases, parents? Would you start working yourself if some virtue volunteered to do everything for you? Probably not. But who will receive the salary in this case? You or that kind uncle?

However, let's return to growth. How the whole process occurs can be observed in the compiled tables displaying high, average and low indicators. We remind you once again that the tables appeared as a result of a six-year study by the World Health Organization among children of different ethnic groups and regions of the Earth. It should be noted that the data of a particular child, strongly deviating in one direction or another from the average, are considered deviations from the norm.

Russia has grown by 10 cm in 100 years: a study of the growth of residents of 200 countries

Russian women have grown by 11.7 centimeters since 1914, and men by 9.5 centimeters. A study of the average height of 18-year-old men and women over the past hundred years has shown the influence of country-specific factors such as nutrition, hygiene and health care on growth.

Scientists from Imperial College London processed about one and a half thousand sources, including government studies on public health and military data. The result was information on average height and its change from 1914 to 2014 for 18-year-old people from 200 countries.

South Korean women (by 20 centimeters) and Iranian men (by 16.5 centimeters) grew the most. And American men stopped growing altogether in the 1960s: in 1914 they were in third place in height, and a hundred years later they were in 37th place.

South African men have grown by just 1.4 centimeters over the course of a century. The reason for this could be the economic situation in Africa in the 1980s. Due to the ensuing health crisis, as well as poor nutrition, many children were unable to reach their full growth potential.

Latvian women became the tallest - their average height was 169.8 centimeters. Among men, the record holders are the Dutch with a height of 182.5 cm. At the other end of the spectrum, East Timorese men were the shortest at 159.8cm, while Guatemalan women were the shortest with an average height of 149.4cm.

The average height of Russian women in 1914 was 153.6 centimeters. In 2014 - 165.3, an increase of 11.7 centimeters. Men grew by only 9.5 centimeters, from 167 to 176.5 centimeters. Ukrainian women grew by 12.3 cm to 166.3, Ukrainians - by 10.8 cm to 178.5. Residents of Belarus became taller by 12.3 cm, their average height was 166.3 cm, Belarusians grew by 10.7 cm to 178.4 cm.

The Guardian publishes complete tables for both sexes.

The authors of the study say that the reasons for the increase in growth were the countries' achievements in the field of medicine, the availability of a varied diet and hygiene. Genetics has a great influence on the height of an individual, but the average height of the population depends less on it. The population of many countries will grow approximately the same if they are in the same conditions.

There are benefits to adding height. First, being tall is associated with longer life expectancy. Secondly, it reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thirdly, statistically, tall people have a higher income on average; tall men are more attractive to the opposite sex. There are also disadvantages - studies have revealed increased risks of a number of cancers.

The global upward trend in growth has important implications. “Our growth today is highly dependent on the environment in which we grew up. In turn, our height affects our life expectancy and our health. If we give children the best start in life now, they will be healthier and more productive for decades to come,” says study co-author James Bentham.

Growth chart for girls

At birth, the average height of a girl is 50.2 cm. During the first year of life, infants grow rapidly, so a child’s height at 1 year will increase by approximately half (up to 75 cm).

Growth norms for girls by month up to one year (in centimeters):

  • Newborn - 50.2;
  • 1 month - 51.7;
  • 2 months - 55;
  • 3 months - 57.7;
  • 4 months - 59.1;
  • 5 months - 61.7;
  • 6 months - 63.5;
  • 7 months - 65;
  • 8 months - 66.4;
  • 9 months - 67.7;
  • 10 months - 69;
  • 11 months - 70.3;
  • 12 months - 74.

On average, a child’s growth at 3 years old will remain almost at the same level; subsequently, the girl will not strive upward as quickly as before.

Girls' height by year (in centimeters):

  • 1 year - 74;
  • 2 years - 86.4;
  • 3 years - 95.1;
  • 4 years - 102.7;
  • 5 years - 109.2;
  • 6 years - 115;
  • 7 years - 120.7;
  • 8 years - 126.3;
  • 9 years - 132.4;
  • 10 years - 138.5;
  • 11 years - 144.2;
  • 12 years - 150.6;
  • 13 years old - 156.8;
  • 14 years old - 161.3;
  • 15 years - 163;
  • 16 years old - 166.7;
  • 17 years old - 169.2.

A child's growth per year should always be considered in tandem with body weight

There is no need to panic if a girl is too tall or short for her age; it is important to compare these indicators with her weight. Doctors in most cases calculate the ratio of both data and draw conclusions whether they are outside the norm

The height of men and women: what it depends on. Norms and records

Human height, which is genetically determined, is almost impossible to change, but much depends on the height of the man and woman in their lives. Are modern people really superior to their ancestors? Why don't we grow throughout our lives? What is the maximum height for the human skeleton? And which famous person have you surpassed in height?

Human growth is one of the most important indicators of the state of the body. It depends on a whole complex of hereditary properties, the entry of many substances into the body, its hormonal regulation, environmental conditions, social status, etc.

Growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland stimulates the development of cells and tissues. The natural cessation of growth is not caused by a lack of hormone production by the pituitary gland, but by an age-related decrease in the ability of cells and tissues of the body to respond to the action of this hormone. Growth is also greatly influenced by insulin (a pancreatic hormone), products of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands.

Excessive secretion of growth hormone leads to a disease such as acromegaly

, the lack of the hormone leads to growth retardation, up to dwarfism.
Gigantism occurs more often in males. Lilliputians, or pituitary dwarfs
, are proportional subjects. These include everyone whose height at the age of twenty does not exceed 140 centimeters for men and 130 centimeters for women.

Growth also depends on social well-being. It was noted that once the difference between an aristocrat and a poor man reached 20–22 centimeters. In the 13th century, the average height of recruits from the south of France was 154 centimeters, and from Paris - 162 centimeters; At the same time, in Russia the average height of service people was 162–164 centimeters, while Muscovites were taller than Novgorod residents.

The growth of a newborn depends on the size of the parents, the size of the uterus, the mother’s nutrition, the presence or absence of toxic processes in her body, as well as the number of previous births. From birth to 7–8 years, boys and girls generally differ little in body length. After 8–10 and up to fifteen years, girls grow somewhat faster, and then boys become taller than girls.

Girls stop growing at the age of fifteen or sixteen, boys - at the age of 18–21. The growth of bones in length most often ends by the time of puberty, and in men it occurs later than in women, which is why they are often taller. Statistics show that over the past hundred years, the height of adolescents has increased by an average of 10 percent, which is about 17.5 centimeters.

Currently, the average height of a Russian man is 176 centimeters, and that of a Russian woman is 168 centimeters. On average, the height of men is 13.5 centimeters higher than that of women.

Psychologists say that men have an irresistible desire to reach the 183-centimeter mark. It is possible that the taller a man is, the more sexually in demand he is.

Nowadays, the taller a woman is, the faster she climbs the career ladder. It is possible that its growth is due to the significant content of the male sex hormone testosterone in the body.

It is believed that a man should be taller than a woman. And if he is a ruler, a boss, then his figure, at least in the minds of his subordinates and when depicted (sculpture, painting), as a rule, rises above ordinary people.

According to American researchers, the wife's height exceeds the husband's in only one out of 720 married couples. But A. Pushkin barely reached the shoulder of his wife Natalya Goncharova.

According to research, positive heroes are more often represented as tall and physically strong people. And women of all cultural backgrounds recognize tall men as more attractive.

Don Quixote had, judging by the famous literary work, a long narrow body. Sancho Panza, on the contrary, was short, stocky, had a short neck and massive muscles. Now think about how our ideas about these literary characters would change if they swapped bodies with each other...

There is an international club, currently numbering about 3 thousand people whose height exceeds 2 meters. If in the first years of the club’s existence its members only consoled each other, then later they began to fight for the production of furniture, shoes and clothing designed for their height, for tax reduction, etc.

In A. Belyaev’s science fiction novel “The Man Who Lost His Face,” hormones “brought” the beautiful Gedda Lux to a height of 287 centimeters. Such growth has not yet been recorded in real people. But in life, men (the length of their limbs usually exceeds the length of the body) have the following records: the Russian Fyodor Makhnov’s height reached 285 centimeters, the Finn Kajanus and the Dutchman Albert Kramer - 282. Records for women (their body length usually prevails over the length limbs): the German Marianne Veda was 255 centimeters tall, and the American Dolores Pullard was 250 centimeters tall. In Russia, the tallest was obviously Elizaveta Lysko - 227 centimeters.

Today, the tallest man in the world is the Turk Sultan Kosen, his height is 247 centimeters, and the Chinese Bao Xishun is 236 centimeters. Zhytomyr resident Leonid Stadnik, with a height of 255 centimeters, is still the unofficial record holder and continues to grow.

In 1872, in England, a marriage took place between Scotswoman Anna Swan (height 234 centimeters) and captain of the guards Martin Bates (height 218 centimeters).

But there are limits to human height. We cannot reach a height of 3–4 meters: our bones are not designed for such a load. Below I present data on the growth of a number of very famous people that I was able to collect, based on information in periodicals.

The height of famous people

A.Pope1 m 35 cm
Tamerlane1 m 45 cm
Alexander the Great1 m 50 cm
Charlemagne1 m 50 cm
A. Pushkin1 m 59 cm (according to other sources 1 m 64 cm)
M. Lermontov1 m 60 cm
B.Mussolini1 m 60 cm (according to other sources 1 m 55 cm, 1 m 62 cm)
Z. Freud1 m 60 cm
Napoleon1 m 61 cm (according to other sources 1 m 52 cm, 1 m 65 cm, 1 m 69 cm)
I.Stalin1 m 62 cm (according to other sources 1 m 69 cm, 1 m 53.5 cm)
Kim JongIr 1 m 62 cm
V. Lenin1 m 64 cm
A. Hitler1 m 65 cm
N. Khrushchev1 m 66 cm
S. Yesenin1 m 68 cm
N. Sarkozy1 m 68 cm
V.Vysotsky1 m 70 cm
V.Putin1 m 70 cm
D.Medvedev1 m 72 cm
S. Berlusconi1 m 73 cm
Nicholas II1 m 74 cm
M. Gorbachev1 m 75 cm
L.Brezhnev1 m 76 cm
Ivan groznyj1 m 78 cm
B. Yeltsin1 m 88 cm
V. Mayakovsky1 m 89 cm
Peter I2 m 01 cm (according to other sources 204–213 cm)

The shortest, obviously, should be recognized as a thirty-seven-year-old woman described in the 17th century by the French naturalist Buffon, who had a height of 43.3 centimeters, and the Filipino Juan de la Cruz, who was 48 centimeters tall. Today, the height of twenty-five-year-old Turk Suleiman Erie is 87 centimeters, and the eight-year-old resident of the island of Java Karey is 51 centimeters. In 2010, eighteen-year-old Nepalese Gyanendra Thapa Magar, who is 55 centimeters tall, entered the Guinness Book of Records.

Often in some states, short people also unite in clubs, because tax services do not take into account that they have to order special clothes, shoes, furniture, adjust the car control system to their height, etc.

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